Building Materials · concrete

Types of Concrete

There are many types of concrete designed to suit variety of purposes and depends on range of composition, finishing and performance characteristics. Some of the common types of concrete are:

  1. Ready Mixed Concrete (RMC) – It is a type of concrete that is manufactured in a factory, based on standardized mix designs and then delivered to the work site by truck mounted transit mixers. This type of concrete results in more precise mixtures, with strict quality control, which is difficult to follow in sites. RMC is being used for bridges, flyovers, and large commercial and residential buildings.
  2. High Performance Concrete – It may be defined as any concrete that provides enhanced performance characteristics for a given application. The requirements may involve such as easy placement, compaction without segregation, long-term mechanical properties, early age strength, permeability, density, heat of hydration, toughness, volume stability and long service life etc. Concrete possessing many of these characteristics often achieve higher strength (usually 50 to 60 MPa).
  3. Self Compacting concrete (SCC) – These are also known as high-workability concrete, self consolidating concrete etc. SCC is a highly workable concrete that can flow through densely reinforced and complex structural elements under its own weight and adequately fill all voids.
  4. Structural Light weight concrete (SLWC) – It is made with lightweight coarse aggregates such as pumice or scoria aggregates and expanded slags, flyash, slate etc. The density will be in the order of 1360 to 1850 kg/m³. For structural applications, the SLWC allows to reduce the dead weight of the concrete elements thus resulting in overall economy. Seismic performance is also improved because the lateral and horizontal forces acting on the structure are directly proportional to the mass of the structure.
  5. Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) – It is a lightweight, strong, inorganic and non-toxic  precast building material that simultaneously provides strength, insulation and fire and termite resistance.
  6. Fibre Reinforced Concrete – Fibres are added to concrete to control cracking caused by plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage. The addition of small closely spaced and uniformly dispersed fibres will act as crack arresters and enhance the tensile, fatigue, impact and abrasion resistance of concrete.
  7. Ductile Fibre-reinforced Cementitious Concrete (DFRCC)  – These have superior properties when compared to FRC. DFRCC have unique properties including damage reduction, damage tolerance, energy absorption, crack distribution, deformation compatibility and delamination resistance.
  8. Engineers Cementitious Composites – Engineered cementitious composites are a special type of HPFRCC that has been micro-structurally tailored based on micro-mechanics. It is engineered to have high ductility under tensile and shear loading.
  9. Ultra High performance concrete – It is a high strength, high stiffness, self consolidating and ductile material. It contains fine silica sand, high-range water reducer, steel and organic fibres. It has to be noted that there no coarse aggregates and a low w/c ratio of about 0.2 is used.
  10. Polymer Concrete – It is obtained by impregnating ordinary concrete with monomer material and then polymerizing it by radiation, by heat and catalytic ingredients or by a combination of these two techniques.

 

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